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Dreams and sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors and nightmares

Dreams and sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors and nightmares

What sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors and nightmares have in common with dreams is that they all occur during sleep. According to research by psychologists, sleepwalking and sleep talking have nothing to do with dreaming, while night terrors and nightmares are mostly related to dreams.

Sleepwalking is the strange phenomenon of getting out of bed during sleep, and then returning to bed to continue sleeping. It is said that sleepwalking has nothing to do with dreaming because the brain wave records of the patients during sleepwalking show that they are in stages 3 and 4 of sleep; they show that they are in the stage of deep sleep. It is impossible to dream during the deep sleep stage, so sleepwalking is more consistent with the fact that it is called "walking during sleep". Most sleepwalkers are children between the ages of 6 and 12. Sleepwalking is not a serious illness and has nothing to do with emotional distress. Most people develop it by adulthood

It will be fine. When a sleepwalker gets out of bed and takes action, he is still in a deep sleep state. When he wakes up, he has no idea of ​​his actions during the night.

However, the phenomenon of sleepwalking is very strange. The person involved can engage in very complex activities during the operation, such as opening doors and walking on the street, taking utensils, and avoiding obstacles to avoid collisions and injuries. After the activity is over, go back to bed and continue sleeping.

It was reported that a male student living in the dormitory of Taipei University of International Business was sleepwalking at night. He actually removed the lampshade from the ceiling on a bunk bed and fell under the bed without being injured. If there is a sleepwalking child at home, don’t worry too much. Just pay attention to the safety of your home and carefully close the door at night.

The reasons for sleepwalking have not been studied yet. Studies have found that family members of sleepwalkers often have other family members who also sleepwalk. Therefore, it can be inferred that sleepwalking may be related to genetics. In one such example, a family reunited for the holidays and slept in separate beds in each room at night. The next morning, they found that the whole family was sleeping in the living room without anyone knowing.

Sleep talking, also known as sleep talking, refers to the phenomenon of talking during sleep. The reason why sleep talking has nothing to do with dreams is because almost all sleep talking occurs during the sleep stage, and there is no dreaming during the sleep stage. So sleep talking is called "sleep"

Talking in sleep is worthy of its name. The cause of talking in sleep is still not known for sure.

Night terrors and nightmares often occur in childhood, and they can be said to occur during the sleep stage. The main symptoms of night terrors in children are: sudden awakening during sleep, a painful expression on the face, staring straight ahead with eyes blankly, getting up and sitting on the bed, shortness of breath, sweating, and even screaming. Since night terrors only occur during the deep sleep stage, they are difficult to wake up. Medical opinion is that it is not advisable to wake the person suffering from night terrors, and there is no need to deliberately treat them. The cause of night terrors is not yet known exactly. It is generally believed that it may be related to the developmental stage of children.Related to temporary disorders of physiological functions. Children with night terrors are not emotionally disturbed as most people say. After childhood, when neurophysiological development matures, night terrors will disappear naturally.

Nightmares are also commonly known as nightmares. The difference between nightmares and night terrors is that in addition to the fact that night terrors always occur during the deep sleep period, night terrors usually occur about an hour after falling asleep, while nightmares usually occur before dawn. This stage of sleep is exactly the stage of rapid eye movement sleep, so the cause of the nightmare phenomenon can be determined to be due to terrible nightmares. Most children can remember the dream situation after waking up. According to research by psychologists, the phenomenon of nightmares is related to daytime emotional stress in children. If the pressure of day and night cannot be easily relieved, it will inevitably make children have trouble getting up in the morning.

The formation of psychological anxiety and fear. If parents find that their children have recurring nightmares before getting up in the morning, in addition to paying attention to the children's daytime life, they should also take the children to see a psychological counselor or psychiatrist.

9. The psychology of the dream process

As a product of the subconscious mind, dreams go through different processes, and each process is accompanied by different psychology. Dreams may be forgotten or retreated. Dreams can also help you achieve your wishes.

1. Forgetting of Dreams Those dreams that we often want to explain, we are not sure whether it actually happened as described. This is mainly reflected in the following points:

First, our dreams themselves will be cut off by unreliable memories. Not only is it particularly incapable of retaining dream impressions, but it often forgets the most important part. And when we focus on a certain dream, we will find that although we have had many dreams, we only remember a small part, and this part is very uncertain.

Second, our memory of dreams is not only incomplete, but also incorrect and fallacious. On the one hand, we doubt whether the dream is really as disconnected as the memory; on the other hand, we also have to doubt whether the dream is as coherent as the narrative; whether the dream is arbitrarily filled in with some new and selected materials when recalling it. The gap is omitted or does not exist at all; or we use some decorations to smooth it out, so that it is impossible to judge which part is the original content. One scholar said that the order and correlation of dreams are all added during recall. Is it possible, therefore, that this impression, whose value we wish to judge, could pass entirely between our fingers without leaving any trace?

Analysis of many examples shows that the most trivial elements in dreams are often indispensable in the interpretation process, and interpretation is often delayed because of its neglect. We attach the same importance to all forms of words shown in dreams. Even if the content of the dream is meaningless or incomplete, it seems that a correct evaluation would not succeed, and we take this defect into account. In other words, what other authors consider haphazardly combined and hastily passed over to avoid confusion, weThey all regard it as a holy book.

One of the methods of dream interpretation is to ask the dreamer to repeat it again. When repeating it, he rarely uses the same method

text. And the part where he used different words to describe the dream happened to be the weak point of dream disguise. This is the starting point of dream interpretation. Asking the patient to repeat himself is nothing more than putting a certain amount of pressure on him, so when he hastily tries to cover up and replaces expressions that would give away the meaning with some less obvious words, this is what the dream interpreter should pay attention to. Because some dreamers try to prevent their dreams from being interpreted (such as sexual dreams that are difficult to talk about), the part they cover up may be the key to dream interpretation.

Generally speaking, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of memory; but we often give it more trust than objectivity. Doubts as to whether the dream, or some part of it, was correctly reported, really only point to a variant of dream censorship (that is, the resistance to dream thoughts entering consciousness). This resistance does not disappear due to the displacement and substitution that has occurred; it remains attached in a questionable manner to the material that is allowed to appear. In many cases, the dreamer feels that he dreamed of many things but remembers very little, which may have other meanings. For example, the dream process goes on all night long, but only a short dream remains. Undoubtedly, as time goes by, we forget more of the content of our dreams; sometimes we cannot remember them despite our best efforts. But dream interpreters can often rely on analytical methods to fill in the gaps.

Dream content.

There is evidence that "the forgetfulness of dreams is biased and a manifestation of resistance". Often during the analysis, forgotten parts of the dream reappear. Dreamers often describe it this way: "I just remembered it." The part of the dream which is presented in this way is necessarily the most important; it is usually situated on the shortest route to the solution of the dream, and is therefore subject to greater resistance. One patient said that he had just had a dream but had forgotten all about it, so the doctor continued to analyze it. Then he encountered a resistance, so the doctor explained to the patient and helped him through encouragement and pressure, but still could not satisfy him. Just when he was about to compromise, he suddenly shouted: "I remember what I dreamed about now." The resistance that hindered their analytical work also caused him to forget the dream, and by overcoming this resistance, the dream came back to him.

Similarly, a patient, after reaching a certain stage of analysis, may be reminded of a dream he had many days ago, which he had previously completely forgotten. There is evidence that the forgetfulness of dreams is mainly due to resistance to this fact, rather than because sleep and wakefulness are two unrelated states. The forgetfulness of dreams is due to the connection between analytical activities and thoughts in waking moments

Mental barrier. In addition, the forgetting of dreams is no different from the forgetting of other mental activities, and their memory is also similar to other mental functions.

Parse your ownDreaming is not a simple and easy task, because it is not only necessary to detect spiritual motives, but also to grasp those "involuntary concepts". Dream analysis is often not completely solved in the first round. After following a series of correlations, we often find that we are exhausted; and that we can get nothing more from the dream that day. The smartest way is to give up for now and continue working on it later; then maybe another dream content will attract our attention and lead to another layer of dream thoughts. This method may be called partial dream interpretation.

Furthermore, even if he grasps the entire interpretation of the dream, a reasonable and coherent analysis, and takes into account every part of the dream content, his work is not over yet, and it is the most difficult thing. Because the same dream may have other different interpretations that escape his attention, such as "excessive interpretation".

Even in the most thoroughly analyzed dreams, there is often a part that must be left alone: ​​because in the process of analysis, we find that these parts are intertwined dream thoughts that cannot be untangled, and it does not add to our understanding of the dream content. . This part

This is the key to dreams, which extends to ignorance. Interpreted dream thoughts do not have some definite origin; they extend in all directions in the intricate world of our thoughts. The dream wish grows out of some particularly close entangled part, just as a mushroom grows out of mycelium.

We already know that waking life undoubtedly tends to forget dreams formed at night, whether completely after waking up or little by little during the day; we know the main reason for forgetting The reason is the resistance of the spirit, which had already done its best to oppose it in the evening. But why do dreams occur under the pressure of this resistance? Let’s use the most extreme example to explain (that is, forgetting everything in the dream when you are awake, as if you had never dreamed). In this case, it follows that if the resistance were as strong at night as during the day, dreams would not be possible. The conclusion is therefore that the resistance in the evening is less powerful, although not entirely lost (since it is still a distorting factor in dream formation). But its power weakens at night, thus allowing dream formation to proceed.

2. Dream regression phenomenon. The process of dream formation must be connected with the dream thoughts belonging to the preconscious. If we only consider dream wishes, we will find that the driving force for dreams is provided by the subconscious mind. Because of this problem, we have to control the subconscious mind

As the starting point of dream formation, just like other thought structures, the facilitator of dream formation strives to reach the preconscious and then enter the conscious level.

It can be seen from experiments that the pathways leading to consciousness through the preconscious are blocked during the day due to the resistance of censorship, and they cannot enter the conscious level until night. How does it enter? What changes do it need to go through? If dream thoughts can sneak in due to the decrease in resistance between the subconscious and preconscious at night, then our dreamsIt should be conceptual and not hallucinatory in nature.

How do hallucinatory dreams come about? It can be said that the propagation direction of excitement is reversed. It is not directed towards the motor end, but towards the sensory end, and finally reaches the perceptual system. If we describe the subconscious mental program of the waking moment as forward, we shall call that of the dream as backward.

This receding effect does not cause hallucinatory reappearance of perceptual images when you are awake. And why is this possible in dreams? We assume that the intensity attached to one concept can be transferred to another concept through the operation of dreams. Perhaps it is this change in the normal mental program that allows the transmission of the sensory system to be reversed, starting from ideas and concepts to completely unfamiliar

In a clear sense.

In dreams, when a concept turns back into its original sensory image, we call it "backward". If we regard dreams as the "retreat" phenomenon of this false mental apparatus, we can explain why all the logical relationships of dream thoughts are lost or difficult to express in dream activities.

Why changes can make this impossible retreat phenomenon occur during the day? First of all, it is naturally the change in the ability of the sensory end caused by the sleeping state.

During the day, there is a continuous flow of excitement from the sensory end of the system to the motor end. At night, this torrent stopped, so the reverse conduction of excitement could no longer be blocked.

The "regression phenomenon" is closely related to those memories that have been suppressed or in the subconscious. The phantom of normal conditions is also a regression phenomenon. For example, there was a 12-year-old boy who could not sleep because he was threatened by a red-eyed man with a blue face. The cause of this phenomenon is the suppressed memory he had from another boy for four years. The boy gave him a cautionary tale about the consequences of bad habits in children (masturbation). The patient now blames himself for this habit. His mother was

Describe his misbehaving child as red-eyed and green-faced (red-rimmed eyes). This was the origin of his apparition, which happened to remind him of another of his mother's prophecies. Such children grow up to be idiots, cannot learn anything in school, and will die young. The young patient fulfilled the first part of the prophecy. He was indeed making no progress in school, and from his free association, he was afraid of the fulfillment of the other half. After treatment he was able to sleep, his nervousness disappeared, and by the end of the school year he was getting good grades.

There was also a woman who said she had an apparition before she fell ill. One morning she opened her eyes and found her brother in the room. Her little son was sleeping next to her, and to save the child from the convulsions at the sight of his uncle, she covered his face with a sheet. Then the phantom disappeared. This apparition is actually a replica of her childhood memory. This memory, although conscious, was closely related to the subconscious material in her mind. Her nanny once mentioned that her mother (who died young) wasShicai (18 months old), said that she (the mother) suffered from epilepsy or convulsions, which she attributed to her brother (the woman's uncle) who used a bed sheet to cover his head and pretended to be a ghost to threaten her. So the apparition had the same elements as her memory: the presence of her brother, the sheets, the threat and its consequences. The difference is that these elements are reorganized into another kind of content,

And transfer it to others. The obvious motive was her fear that her uncle-like son would follow in his footsteps.

It can be seen that the power of memory cannot be underestimated, especially those memories that originate from childhood and are suppressed or remain in the subconscious.

If we do not forget that childhood experiences and the fantasies derived from them occupy a large part of dream thoughts, and at the same time note that fragments of these experiences often appear in dreams and that many dream wishes originate from them, we cannot deny that , in dreams, thoughts are transformed into visual images, perhaps because these visual memories long for resurrection, pressuring those thoughts that have been excluded from consciousness, and struggling to find a substitute for the scenery of childhood, due to the recent move materials have been changed. Scenes from childhood cannot be resurrected on their own, so they have to be reflected in dreams.

3. Wish fulfillment We divide dreams into two categories based on wishes. The first type of dream clearly shows the fulfillment of the wish, while the other type of dream shows that the wish fulfillment is not only difficult to detect, but is often concealed in every possible way. In the latter case, dreams with unmodified wishes mostly occur in children, but short and clearly wish-fulfillment dreams also seem to occur in adults.

Let’s talk about where the desire is first. There are three origins: First, it may originate from the excitement during the day, but it is caused by

Unable to be satisfied by external reasons, I leave a recognized but unfulfilled wish to the evening. The second is that it may originate from the day, but is rejected, so what is left at night is an unsatisfied and suppressed desire. The third is that it may have nothing to do with the day, but is suppressed and only active at night. desire. The first desire arises from the preconscious. The second kind of desire is driven from the conscious mind into the subconscious mind. The third kind of wish-impulse cannot break through the subconscious system.

Do these wishes of different origins have the same importance to dreams? And do they have the same power to promote the formation of dreams?

Give a very simple example. A certain lady likes to tease others. Once, a friend who was younger than her had just gotten engaged. Many acquaintances asked her: "Do you know him? What is your impression of him?" Her answers were superficial, but in fact she hid her real criticism. As much as she wanted to tell the truth, that he was just an ordinary guy. That night she dreamed that someone else asked the same question, but she replied: "If you want to order again, just write the number."

It can be seen that many dreams have been modified, and her wishes originated from the subconscious and cannot be detected during the day.

There is a phasesame value and power.

Under normal circumstances, a wish that is fulfilled during the day cannot cause an adult to dream. Desires originating from the conscious level will help create dreams. If the preconscious wish could not receive assistance from elsewhere, the dream would be impossible.

It can be seen that dreams actually come from the subconscious mind. Conscious wishes can only successfully produce dreams if they are reinforced by similar wishes in the subconscious mind. If given the opportunity, they will form an alliance with the conscious desire and transfer their stronger power to the weaker one. So it appears that conscious wishes alone produce dreams.

Trace of the subconscious mind can be seen in certain inconspicuous features of dream formation. But one thing is certain: the wishes presented in dreams must be from childhood. In adults, it originates from the subconscious mind, but in children it is still unclear because there is still no division between the preconscious and the subconscious mind, or it is only slowly differentiating.

During sleep, except for the desire excitement from the subconscious, there is no source that can cause the excitement of the preconscious. The excitement of the preconscious must be strengthened by the subconscious, and at the same time, it must work hand in hand with the subconscious through a circuitous path.

The preconscious of the day before must have been searching for ways to enter the dream, and even at night it wanted to use the dream content to enter consciousness

Layer. They sometimes take over the entire content of the dream and force it to carry out activities that were left unfinished during the day. These remnants of the day naturally have other qualities besides wishes. So what conditions must they meet to enter dreams? This may be directly related to the theory that "dreams are wish fulfillment".

Unpleasant dreams may be punishment dreams, which is also a subconscious wish. In other words, this wish is to punish the dreamer. Because he possesses a forbidden impulse.

The driving force for the formation of dreams must be provided by a certain desire belonging to the subconscious mind. In the second category, the desire formed in the dream belongs to the subconscious and is suppressed. In the dream of punishment, although it also belongs to the subconscious, it is not suppressed, but belongs to the "self". Therefore, the dream of punishment shows that the ego may play a greater role in the formation of the dream. But we must know that dreams of psychological punishment do not necessarily arise from situations in which painful events occurred during the day.

It is most likely to occur when the dreamer feels at ease, and the remnants of the day are some satisfying thoughts. But the satisfaction they express is taboo. This kind of thought cannot appear in manifest dreams, which are the same as in the first category of dreams, except for its opposite. Therefore, the characteristic of punishment dreams is that the desire formed in the dream does not originate from the repressed material, but is caused by it.

The willingness to punish is a self-expression, but it is also a manifestation of the subconscious mind.

But there are many dreams that are mostly or entirely caused by the remnants of daytime life. The power required for the formation of dreams must be provided by wishes. How to capture a wish as the power source of dreams? This isWorry phenomenon. That is, a subconscious wish is instigated by daytime activities to form a dream.

Tracing the origins of the subconscious mind, we have analyzed their relationship with the remnants of the day. This remnant may be a wish, a spiritual impulse or simply a recent impression.

In this case, we can all explain the importance of the role played by various waking thoughts in the formation of dreams, and even explain this extreme example on the basis of this train of thoughts: That is, the dream pursues the activities of the day and reaches satisfactory conclusions to unresolved problems in real life.

[Master’s characteristic dream analysis]

The above dream interpretations are general interpretations. If you need to know specific matters, you can ask a master to interpret your dreams based on your birth date and the scene when you dreamed:

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